bladder is a hollow organ located in the pelvis which stores urine that it gradually receives from the
kidneys after filtration. Once full, it takes a spherical
shape. The bladder stores urine until a
sufficient quantity, usually 250-300 ml, and then sends signals to the brain to trigger the urge to
urinate. As the kidneys produce urine
continuously, absence or bladder diseases cause the patient to urinate
bladder is like a balloon that constantly adapts to the volume it contains while maintaining a constant
pressure during filling. It receives urine through the ureters
from the kidneys and empties through the urethra which traverses the prostate located just below the bladder.
Emptying of the bladder requires both the release of the occlusion system (sphincter) located at the outlet
of the bladder, and active contraction of the muscle fibers in the wall of the bladder.
This is an important organ but it can be
pathologically affected. The main medical conditions of the bladder are infections, cystitis; tumors, polyp,
bladder cancer. The term "polyp" is generally used to
describe benign or "superficial" tumors. Regardless of the condition or bladder cancer
these diseases can lead to serious complications without proper treatment. Please see bladder cancer treatment section.
Cancer of bladder is, in term of frequency, after prostate cancer, the second most common
cancer of the urinary tract. It is much more common in men than in
women. In the USA, it is the fourth most common cancer in
men and the ninth most common cancer in women, according to the American Cancer Society
Tumors - Most bladder tumors are
superficial, the cancer cells do not deeply infiltrate the wall of the bladder. Depending on the case, they are called polyps, papilloma, superficial tumors, or
others. The polyps usually look like a raspberry or an anemone whose fringes (the base of the polyps) are
implanted in the bladder wall and float in the urine like seaweed on the ocean's
The tumor may be single or multiple,
papillary (fringed) or relatively nonpapillary
In some cases, the polyps occupy the
greater part of the bladder lining, leaving little healthy bladder mucosa; this is called bladder
Situ - Besides
superficial tumors, the
bladder can also have a form of non-invasive cancer called carcinoma in situ. In this case, the condition is
characterized by a flat papillary tumor, not located within the thickness of the mucosa. It can be unique, about 10% of cases; or
associated with one or more polyps, which is often the case.
Cancer - These forms of tumors are
usually more serious and the cancer cells deeply invade the bladder wall. Invasive bladder
to the muscle
wall of the bladder, and sometimes in other
part of the body. An
cancer treatment is more systematic,
and removal of the gland (cystectomy) is
for the survival of the patient.
Although considered as the standard
treatment for this
cystectomy is a major
procedure that radically
changes the lives
of patients underwent the surgery. Please
see bladder cancer surgery for information.
90% of bladder tumors are urothelial carcinoma of the bladder because they develop from the urothelium, group
of cells that lines much of the urinary
tract including the bladder wall.
bladder tumors can be non-urothelial; this occurs especially when the tumor is related to chronic irritation
to the bladder wall by stones, schistosomiasis(also known as bilharzia of the
bladder), and others.
Some forms of exceptional rare bladder
tumor include: melanoma (cancerous), pheochromocytoma (usually
lymphoma (cancerous), and choriocarcinoma (cancerous