Bone cancer grows directly in any of
the 270 bones, from a cartilage or fibrous tissue. Although human skeleton can also be the site of primary
cancers, bone cancers are most often metastases, malignant tumors that metastasize to a bone from another organ
especially breast, kidney, prostate, thyroid or lung. The most frequent include osteosarcomas (also called
osteogenic sarcomas) which tend to occur mainly in children or young adults.
These primary bone cancers can affect
any bone of the body, but in one case out of two they are located near the knee. However, all bones can be
affected by secondary cancers called "bone metastases", although osteosarcomas tend to develop especially at the
spine and pelvis. The two main bone cancer symptoms are unusual pain and swelling,
although some cases are asymptomatic at the beginning.
Bone cancer treatment is based
primarily on surgery, chemotherapy but also on radiation therapy and hormone therapy. Surgical therapy is
usually the main treatment. This is a cancer of good prognosis, having a 5-year relative survival of about 80%.
Osteosarcoma prognosis has improved considerably in recent years and the cure is often possible without the need
for amputation. Please see bone cancer treatment for more
Primary cancers of the bones are
uncommon; however, all bones may be the site of a malignant tumor, in particular in the case of secondary tumors
(metastasis) of a cancer in other organ: lung, breast, kidney, thyroid or prostate. In fact, metastases can
affect the skull to form a secondary tumor. In contrast, occurrence of secondary cancer on the extremity of an
osteogenic tissue is rare.
Types of Bone
Primary osteogenic tumors are more
common in children or young adults than among individuals of 40 years old or older. As for secondary bone
cancers (metastases), it is, of course, the opposite; they occur essentially in adults.
There are several types of bone
– This is the most
frequent primary cancer in bones. The tumor particularly affects the long bones, near their extremity. 2 out
of 3 osteosarcoma cases develop near the knee. This cancer occurs mostly in individuals between the ages 10
and 20 years old.
– this is a tumor that
can form in flat and short bones (pelvis, ribs, vertebrae…) as well as long bones of the legs or arms. The
disease is diagnosed mainly children and young adolescents.
– this is a cartilage
tumor that usually affects adults between 30 and 70 years. It is virtually unknown in
Other rare types of bone cancer
include fibrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), as well as chondrosarcomas which are basically
Types Of Bone Cancer