Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is one of
blood diseases called "myeloproliferative disorders",
a group of medical conditions
causing blood cells - platelets, white blood cells, and red blood cells - to grow abnormally.
Therefore, CML is characterized
by a persistent and excessive production in
the bone marrow of white blood cells (also known
leukocytes). Most of these white blood cells are abnormal
(or immature), given their development is not completed.
Chronic myeloid leukemia is related to the appearance
of an abnormal fusion of two chromosomes of bone marrow stem cells, which gives rise to a
small abnormal chromosome called Philadelphia chromosome. This anomaly results from the assembly error
by a gene on chromosome 9, named
ABL, with a gene on chromosome
22, called BCR. This produces the
said gene BCR-ABL which is present only in cells of chronic myeloid leukemia. This gene (BCR-ABL) produces abnormally enzyme, tyrosine kinase, which is itself responsible
for the increased production of white blood
leukemia symptoms can go unnoticed
for years at the beginning due to the fact the disease generally
progresses slowly. It often
remains asymptomatic during the first month or the first years of its development. The
onset is insidious and some cases are discovered incidentally during a routine
blood count in apparently healthy
As general chronic myeloid leukemia symptoms, patients can
experience fatigue, fever, sweating, loss of appetite,
sometimes shortness of
subjects may initially have symptoms of hyperthyroidism,
causing the thyroid gland to produce too much of the hormone
thyroxine. There is
indeed an increased metabolic rate, but this
is often a result of uncontrolled proliferationof immature blood cells(leukemic
Symptoms related to proliferationof immature blood
tendency to infections may not be experienced during the first months of evolution of the disease the fact that white blood cells are functional, but later in advanced stages.
Instead, patients tend to complain of a tendency to
bleeding: bleeding gums (gingival bleeding), bleeding from the nose
red or purple
discolorations on the skin (purpura), dental extraction complications, and others.
Symptoms related to Complications
spleen becomes enlarged (splenomegaly): it sometimes
reaches the left iliac fossa, causing a mass, which can be hard and
b) The lymph nodes are not
enlarged in the majority of cases, but it case it does (lymphadenopathy), this is a sign of serious complications; the
patient needs to see his doctor immediately.
c) The liver is often somewhat increased in size, at least at advanced
d) The bones can be painful, either
spontaneously or when being pressured.
In general, patients with chronic myeloid
leukemia have one of some of these signs and
Lack of appetite
Discomfort in the left side of the
without being on diet
discomfort in hot weather
Inclination or tendency to
breath associated with simple activity.
these symptoms are not specific
to chronic myeloid leukemia. Only a health professional can perform
specific tests to diagnose CML.
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia