with a physical exam, many tests and medical exams are used to diagnose leukemia:
- Physical exam - this is a simple exam during which your physician
will search in your body signs and symptoms of leukemia: pinprick bleeds, bruises, skin paleness (due to
anemia), swollen lymph nodes, etc.
- Blood tests - your doctor may take your blood sample for
laboratory analysis. In general, a high concentration of immature white blood cells and an abnormally low
number of red blood cells and platelets is an indication of leukemia.
- Immunophenotype - this test is a powerful tool in the diagnosis and
monitoring of most hematological malignancies such as lymphoblastic leukemia and myeloblastic
leukemia. It helps
to discover not only leukemia cells, but also to differentiate chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from
other types of leukemia and lymphoma.
- Cytogenetic analysis - this cytogenetic exam is a study of genetic
phenomena in the chromosomes in order to detect Philadelphia chromosome. In some rare cases, however, the
Philadelphia chromosome is not present although there is leukemia. The most
common techniques of cytogenetic analysis include karyotype analysis, Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization
(FISH), and DNA
- Bone marrow biopsy - your doctor can recommend a bone marrow biopsy to
confirm the diagnosis and determine the type of leukemia you have. In general, the specialist will use a
needle to withdraw marrow sample and then analyze it under a microscope to look for leukemia