prostate is an important gland of the male reproductive system, which includes the penis, scrotum, testes,
spermatic ducts, Bulbourethral
glands,the prostate gland, and others.
These organs work synergistically to produce many functions including producing sperm, the male gamete, and
the other elements of semen.
The prostate contains the ejaculatory
ducts. It is located below the bladder, in
front of the rectum, and surrounds the urethra, which leads urine from the bladder to the outside. This
explains why people with prostate disorders tend to have urinary problems – please see prostate cancer symptoms.
In young men, the prostate is about the
size of a walnut, 1.6 x 1 x 1.2 inches, and
can weigh up to 25 grams. This
gland is composed of a set of components called lobules, which are formed by supportiveconnective
smooth muscle, blood vessels and nerve endings, as well as glandular formations which secrete prostatic
This is a very important organ for men
life. But it is subject to three major diseases: adenoma or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), acute or
chronic infection of the prostate (prostatitis), and malignant tumor (cancer). Prostate cancer is the most
serious among these 3 medical conditions.
Prostate cancer is a formation of a
malignancy in the cells of the prostate gland. The cancer usually develops from the tissue of the gland when
due to certain carcinogenic aggressions the cells mutate and multiply uncontrollably without naturally
committing suicide by programmed cell
death(apoptosis), which is a fundamental
biological process for a healthy living.
As the malignant cells continue to
reproduce, the tumor can then extend (metastasize) from the prostate to other parts of the body: bones, lymph
nodes, and others.
Cancer of prostate is the most
common malignant tumor in men. According to the American Cancer Society, it is estimated that
220,800 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer this 2015, causing the death of about 27,540. Nearly
1 in 7
men in their sixties will be diagnosed with cancer of prostate. These figures do not include people are
living with the disease without knowing it. Prostate cancer signs tend to
prostate cancers develop very slowly. In fact, majority of men in whom the
cancer is detected will die of another cause. Often, the tumor remains localized in
the prostate and has limited effects on health, except painless
urinary disorders or erectile dysfunction
(please see prostate cancer and sex); although it occurs some cancers develop and spread rapidly. But in
general, prostate cancer is a disease of good prognosis, over 95% survival rate five years after
About 95% of
casesof prostate cancer develop in the
glandular tissues of the body (prostate
severity of the cancer depends on many factors: lifestyle of the patient (healthy/unhealthy diet, being
positive/negative), the extent of the tumor (local, with neighboring or distant metastases), the type of
cancer cells affected, the stage of the tumor at diagnosis or the degree of the malignancy – please prostate cancer diagnosis.
the diagnosis, the evolution of the cancer in the prostate is usually measured by the Gleason score, which is
based on the type of cancer cells. It is a graduate of 2, which indicates
slow evolution; to 10, the tumor is rapidly advancing.
The best option is to undergo prostate
cancer screening if you are 45 years old or older. Early prostate cancer
antigen-2(EPCA-2) test can
in the early detection of the disease. The procedure allows a health care
provider to measure the rate of the EPCA-2 protein in
the blood to determine if it is low or elevated. This protein tends to
be elevated in prostate cancer
patients. The test provides more accurate answer in identifying early the disease than the standard PSA
test. In fact, a prostate cancer be cured if it is diagnosed early. The problem is the fact it is not
available in most countries.
Prostate Cancer Statistics
American Joint Committee on Cancer. Prostate. In:
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