Causes and Risk Factors of Rectal Cancer
in recent years that allow researchers to better understand the
mechanisms of cancer development, the causes of rectal cancer are still not well known. But a group of risk factors such as
heredity, lifestyle, and exposure to carcinogenic chemicals or
substances are suspected in the occurrence of the cancer.
Age: colorectal cancers are
rare in people less than fifty years old; they are more
common in individual 65 or older.
risk of having a colorectal cancer is higher
if a close relative has (had)
it. The risk is even stronger when
there is more than one close relative in the family with the
disease: father, mother, brother, sister. However, some scientists believe
that cancer is not genetic but the reason it sometimes runs in a family is simply lifestyle tends to pass
from generation to another.
Studies, however, have some researchers to identify
high-risk families where people have a specific mutation
that predisposes them to cancer.
These familial cases represent only 5% of colorectal cancers
1. Familial Adenomatous
Polyposis(FAP) – this condition is
characterized by the appearance of multitude polyps in all
carriers of APC mutated gene. In adulthood, one of
these polyps degenerate necessarily
in cancer unless the colon
is surgically removed
Lynch syndrome (HNPCCor hereditary
nonpolyposis colorectal cancer)
– in this condition, the
patient has fewer polyps than in
FAP, and lower risk of cancer, but need regular colonoscopy check-up as preventive measure.
Disease– certain diseases of the colon, including
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis increase the risk
for colorectal cancer. After twenty years, the risk of getting the
cancer is about 1/3 if the entire
colon is affected.
Lifestyle – this play a major role in the
occurrence of most cancers, including rectal cancer. Indeed, if people cannot
change their age or heredity, they
can quit smoking, avoid drinking alcohol, eat less meat, consume more
cruciferous vegetables, and exercise regularly.
Rectal Cancer Symptoms