T-cell lymphoma Warning Signs, Symptoms and Treatment
T-cell lymphoma Symptoms depend on the organ
affected by the tumor as well as the health status of the patient. The vast majority
of lymphomas develop in the lymph
nodes and possibly in other
organs. However, there are certain types of the cancer that only
arises from organs: digestive system, skin, testis,
brain, and others.
But among the most common T-cell lymphoma
Symptoms include enlarged or swollen lymph nodes/glands (lymphadenopathy),
and abnormal enlargement of the liver and
spleen (hepatosplenomegaly) which
can lead to:
fever or chills
Night sweats and itchiness
gain or weight loss
bleeding or bruising
and presence of excess fatin feces
Severe abdominal pain (sign of
to digest certain or large amounts of food
Confusion or loss of consciousness
(sign of complication)
of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice).
First, the health care
provider will perform a physical exam. During the examination, the patient
may present signs which indicate the presence of the tumor in the
appearance of his skin and/or bones, which corresponds to high levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia) and high levels lactate
dehydrogenase (LDH), an enzyme found in body
tissues. Usually, high levels of
LDH are associated with liver disease, heart attack, anemia, muscle trauma,
bone fractures, cancers, or certain infections (meningitis, encephalitis, and HIV).
The diagnosis of T cell lymphoma in
adults is performed and confirmed
based on a lymph node biopsy. A
sample is taken from a
lymph node which is then examined under a microscope to search for presence of cancer
cells. The diagnosis may further include x-rays, bone marrow
biopsy, and CT scans. Blood tests are also performed
to look for the presence of HTLV-1
T-cell lymphoma Treatment depends mostly on the characteristic of
the cancer and the general health status of the patient.
But the treatment usually combines
chemotherapy, antiretroviral drugs and biologics,
and stem cell. After the therapy, some patients
may cure from the tumor or live for a
long time with the cancer.
Waiting (WAW) – Patient with latent form of
T-cell lymphoma do not need to be majorly
treated right away if they have no symptoms or problems (asymptomatic T-cell lymphoma).
Healthy diet and lifestyle can help the patient keep the disease under control. Major treatment can be considered
only when the cancer causes symptoms
or life-threatening changes.
Chemotherapy - People
with acute or advanced T-cell
lymphoma are often recommended to undergo chemotherapy by their
oncologist or health care provider. In this case, association of chemotherapy agents can be used to
treat the cancer. CHOP chemotherapy regimen is the most commonly
treat T-cell lymphoma.
CHOP stands for cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan, Procytox), doxorubicin (Adriamycin), vincristine
(Oncovin) and prednisone (Deltasone).
T-cell lymphoma may not respond well
to conventional chemotherapy in some patients. When this occurs,
more intensive chemotherapy combinations are considered. These
drugs can cause adverse reactions. For information, please visit chemotherapy side
Antiretroviral Drugs and Biologics – this group of
medications may be used with other medicines to
treat T-cell lymphoma. They are mostly recommended when the oncologist suspects that viral infection can be
the cause of the cancer. Zidovudine (Retrovir, AZT), an
antiretroviral drug that can treat HIV
infection, along with biological drugs such as alpha interferon
(Intron A, Wellferon) can be prescribed to the patient. In
addition, these drugs are proven to be effective in patients who
do not respond to chemotherapy.
Bone Marrow Transplant – also known as stem cell transplant (SCT), this therapeutic procedure consists of replacing diseased bone marrow by healthy stem
cells to develop into healthy bone marrow. Certain people
with T-cell lymphoma, particularly those who do not
respond to cancer chemotherapy, can profit from allograft bone marrow