Appendix cancer, also called appendiceal cancer, is a rare malignancy of the vermiform appendix, affecting 1,000Americans envirosns each year. The most common tumorof the appendix is carcinoid, but not all appendicealcarcinoids are malignant. The genesis of appendix cancerusually appears in the size of about 2 cm or less, affecting a small fingerlike pouch of the large intestinecalled cecal (or caecal) appendix or vermix). The presence in the lymph nodes or invasion of adjacent tissues in the Annex is a sign of seriousness of the disease.
Among many types, adenocarcinomas are the most common primary carcinoid malignant tumors of theappendix. However, adenocarcinoma originating in the appendix is rare, and generally looks like a microscopique colon adenocarcinoma (acancer that develops in the glandular tissues). Although small in the beginning,Primary signet–ring cell carcinomaof the colon and rectumdo not have a good prognosis. Patients tend to die early with the disease.
Most mucinous tumors of the appendix are benign mucinous cystadenoma. Rare malignant, mucinous cystadenocarcinoma is identified by an invasion through the wall of the appendix or epithelial cells in the mucus covering the peritoneum.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are rare benign tumors with malignancy potentiality. Primary lymphomas can occur in the appendix. Breast cancer, colon cancer, and tumors of the female genital tract may metastasize to the appendix.
Appendix Cancer Epidemiology
In a recent study done on primary malignacies in the United States, it is estimated that a rate of 0.12 cases per million inhabitants per year are affected by appendix cancer. During the study, Carcinoid is found inapproximately 1 in 300 appendectomies for acute appendicitis. In another study in Hong Kong, in a series of 1492 appendectomies only 17 cases are identified as cancer: eight were malignant carcinoid without malignant formality;three cases of adenocarcinoma, and one each from cystadenocarcinoma, psedomyxoma peritoneii and metastatic carcinoma were identified. The Remaining was benigntumors.
Appendix Cancer Treatment
There is no single treatment for appendix cancer; treatment varies depending on the stage of the tumor and health status of the patient. Small carcinoid tumors (<2 cm) without malignancy can be treated byappendectomy when complete removal is possible. Carcinoid tumorsand other adenocarcimoas are mostoften treated by right hemicolectomy – A colectomy procedure to remove the right side of the colon.
Pseudomyxoma peritonei treatment includes surgical removal of the visible tumor and affected vital organsin the abdomen and pelvis.During the procedure, the peritoneal cavity is infused with a form of heated chemotherapy called HIPEC in order to kill residual malignant cells. The surgery may or may not be preceded or followed with intravenous chemotherapy or HIPEC.