Once the diagnosis is confirmed, your oncologist will assess the extent of the tumor to determine the stage of the cancer. In general, cancer stage is determined based on the size of the tumor and degree of the cancer cells to spread within your body. Staging is important for your oncologist to choose the most effective treatment, and determine the prognosis.
In general, the stages of kidney cancer are determined by Roman numerals: I, II, III and IV. The higher the stage, the less likely you are to survive.
- Carcinoma in situ – also called stage 0, carcinoma in situ indicates the genesis of the cancer.
- Stage I – in this early stage, the cancer is small and confined to the kidney.
- Stage II – at stage2, the tumor has increased in size, but has not spread yet.
- Stage III – the cancer has spread to the surrounding areas or the adrenal glands; in certain cases, the tumor may have also spread to a nearby lymph node.
- Stage IV – the cancer has affected not only surrounding tissue of the kidney but also distant parts of your body: brain, lungs, bone or/and liver.