Lymphoma refers to any type of cancer that affects a group of immune system cells called lymphocytes. There are many types, but the main ones are Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). T-cell Lymphoma is a subtype of NHL. Some lymphomas are changing rapidly and must be treated earliest possible to avoid fetal consequence. Others are slow growing and can be kept under control by regular monitoring. It is now possible to cure some form of lymphomas.
T–cell lymphoma, also known as T–cellleukemia,is an aggressive type of T-cell lymphoma in whichthe cancerous T cells are found in the peripheral blood stream. It is a rare cancer in North America,and more common in Asian countries such as Japan and China, where human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV-I) infection is more common. The HTLV-1 infection increases the risk for people to develop T-cell lymphoma.
T–cell lymphoma is classed in 4 categories:
- Extranodal T cell lymphoma, a cutaneous form of cutaneous lymphoma, commonly found in Korea.
- Cutaneous T cell lymphomas, a type of cancer of the immune system, in which the cancerous T cells migrate to the skin, causing formation of lesions.
- Anaplastic large cell lymphoma, one of the more common subtypes of T-cell lymphoma which affects the lymphatic system.
- Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma, an aggressive (fast-growing) form of subtype T–cell lymphoma which also affects the blood or lymph vessels.
T-cell lymphoma Causes and Risk Factors
There are different forms of lymphoma, and the causes and risk factors are divers. Lymphocytes are cells of the immune system; that is, they are part of the white blood cells. They are produced by the bone marrow, spleen, thymus and lymph nodes. There are classified in two groups: B cells, whichsecrete antibodies; and T cells, which play the role of natural defense of the body to attack pathogens, microorganisms for instance, directly. T-cell Lymphoma occurs when the T cells begin tomultiply uncontrollably without dying by natural programmed cell–death(PCD), apoptosis.
Common risk factors of T–celllymphoma include:
Age – T-cell lymphoma can occur at any age, from early adulthood to old age.
Gender – The cancer is slightly more common in men than in women.
Location – T-cell lymphoma is diagnosed mostly in people of southern Japan, central Africa and the Caribbean, although some irregularcases are occasionallydiagnosed in some other parts of the world.
Viral Infection– the cancer are diagnosed in individuals who were infected with T-cell lymphotropicvirus human type I (HTLV-1), although patients carrying the HTLV-1 rarely develop T-cell lymphoma.Even when happens, it can take a long time before the tumor develops.