The testes are two male sex glands located outside the pelvis into the scrotum. They are fixed to the scrotum by the spermatic cord, the structure of the male genitalia containing the vas deferens, some lymph nodes, veins and nerves. Each adult testis measures approximately 14 cm³ – 35 cm³ with a weight of about 18 g. The two main roles of the testicles are to produce sperm, which then pass through the vas deferens to reach the prostate in which it mixes with seminal fluid to form semen; and synthesize male hormones including testosterone.
All these features are possible thanks to thousands of cells working in synergy. Every day, thousands of testicular cells die (self-cell destruction or apoptosis) to be replaced by new healthy cells. Testicular cancer occurs when there is abnormal and anomic cell proliferation in the testes. The testes become assailed by cells which multiply exaggeratedly without committing suicide.
The cause of this cellular disorder is not well known; risk factors, however, are suspected.