Depending on its characteristic, bone cancer is classed in different types: osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, Kaposi’s sarcoma and multiple myeloma.
Osteosarcoma – osteosarcoma is the most common type of primary bone cancer, affecting mostly children and adolescents or young adults. Most of the times, the tumor develop in the extremities (metaphyses) of the long bones located near the joint of the knees (femur, tibia) and shoulder (humerus). In general, osteosarcoma is characterized by persistent pain and swelling.
Chondrosarcoma – this is a malignant bone tumor that develops mainly from cartilage. Although it can develop in any bone of the body, chondrosarcoma mostly begins in the hip, pelvis and in rare cases the leg or arm: metaphysis and diaphysis. Chondrosarcoma is the second most frequent primary bone cancer. It is more common among adults aged 30 and over. Chondrosarcoma is characterized by bone pain and a solid mass on palpation.
Ewing’s Sarcoma – Ewing’s sarcoma occurs when there is a proliferation of small round cells born in the central region of the bone. Ewing sarcoma is a very rare form of bone cancer, affecting about 2 to 3 people per million. The tumor affects mostly children between 10 and 15 years, with a prevalence among males of the white race. Ewing sarcoma affects mostly short or flat bones: pelvis, ribs, vertebrae; and long bones: femur, fibula, tibia, and humerus. Ewing’s sarcoma is characterized by persistent pain, swelling and sometimes fracture.
Myeloma – also called Kahler’s disease or multiple myeloma, myeloma develops from cells of hematopoietic stem cells, multipotent stem cells that are responsible for producing blood cells in the bone marrow. Myeloma is characterized by a malignant proliferation of cells in the bone marrow that are responsible for producing and excreting antibodies in the blood serum (plasma). The proliferation of these (cancer) cells causes a progressive destruction of bone tissue. Unlike many other types of bone cancer, myeloma is more common among adults between 50 and 80 years with a prevalence in men. Usually, multiple myeloma results in pain and spontaneous fractures of the long bones.