The vagina should not be confused with the vulva, all external parts of the women reproductive tract. The vagina is the organ through which a woman has sex, evacuates fluids during menstruation and gives birth. It is a muscular and very elastic duct, about 12 cm in length, which extends from the uterus to the vulva. The interior of the vagina is covered with a thin mucous membrane (vaginal mucosa) that has many transverse ridges (vaginal rugae) as well as many nerves allowing it to have certain sensitivity. The vaginal mucosa constantly produces various secretions to keep the vagina more or less humid.
Vaginal cancer occurs when certain cells lining the vagina multiply anarchically t form a malignant growth. These cells never stop to grow, and leading to formation of cancerous lesions in the vaginal cavity. In other words, vagina cancer is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal cells that line the inner surface of the vagina.